Approximately 80 to 85 percent of the refractories produced in the world are used in smelting and cement factories, and 15 to 20 percent in glazing factories – tiling – bush tunnels and so on.

۱٫Temperatures

Due to the heat needed to bake and use its product, each customer needs a fireproof furnace that can handle the furnace heat well, so the fireproofing materials should be able to withstand the furnace heat according to the place of use, and Do not reach the dough stage. In this case, the heat-resistant wind for refractories is a few percent more than the heat in the furnace.

۲٫ Transformation

We know that all objects are deformed against high temperatures and usually expanded when the heat rises and shrinks when it cools down. If the refractory parts expand and press together in a melting furnace or cement, they initially tighten each other and connect more to the furnace body, but the expiration of the refractory material increases the pressure on each other and causes Shattering themselves. And if they initially fireproof the fire to prevent this pressure, or the fireproofing will reduce its volume, it will slip in place and cause the fireproofing to collapse. Therefore, it should be noted that fire-resistant materials, in particular in rotary kilns, should have properties that their contraction and expansion does not cause crushing or collapse.

۳٫ Changing elements in the heat effect

Refractories in which some iron oxides such as iron oxide (III) and iron oxide (II) exist in their raw materials. If they are produced from materials in the CO gas furnace, this gas is combined with oxygen in the oxide of iron and converted into carbon dioxide gas. It is possible to release iron in refractories and cause changes in the nature of refractories. Therefore, the maximum total amount of these oxides and other oxides of uranium oxide, such as magnesium oxide, should not exceed 5% in refractories.

ترجمه این متن به انگلیسی: faفارسی

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